Adversarial perturbation in remote sensing image recognition


Remote sensing is the process of detecting and monitoring the physical characteristics of an area by measuring its reflected and emitted radiation at a distance (typically from satellite or aircraft) Special cameras collect remotely sensed images, which help researchers "sense" things about the Earth. Evelyn Pruitt, a geographer with the US Office of Naval Research, was the first to coin the term 'remote sensing'. A sensor is a device that detects the change in the environment and responds to some output on the other system A sensor converts a physical phenomenon into a measurable analog voltage (or sometimes a digital signal) converted into a human-readable display or transmitted for reading or further processing. Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus is in contrast to on-site observation The term is applied especially to acquiring information about the Earth. Remote sensing is the science of obtaining information about objects or areas from a distance, typically from aircraft or satellites. For example, a laser-beam remote sensing system projects a laser onto the surface of Earth and measures the time that it takes for the laser to reflect back to its sensor. Remote sensing technology is used in a wide variety of disciplines in thousands of different use cases, including most earth sciences, such as meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, oceanography, glaciology, geography, and in land surveying, as well as applications in military, intelligence, commercial, economic. Radiometers and photometers are the most common instrument in use, collecting reflected and emitted radiation in a wide range of frequencies The most common are visible and infrared sensors, followed by microwave, gamma-ray, and rarely, ultraviolet Most passive systems used by remote sensing applications operate in the visible, infrared, thermal infrared, and microwave portions of the electromagnetic spectrum These sensors measure land and sea surface temperature, vegetation properties, cloud and aerosol properties, and other physical properties. The advantages of remote sensing include the ability to collect information over large spatial areas; to characterize natural features or physical objects on the ground; to observe surface areas and objects on a systematic basis and monitor their changes over time; and the ability to integrate this data with other

Remote sensing technology is becoming more important in geography due to attention being paid to the latest information, planning, and management for public and private interests It is most useful for natural resource management, sustainable development, environmental degradation, and disaster management Its satellite data are used as basic inputs for the inventory of natural resources and development processes like agriculture, soil, forestry, and geology (Chavez et al, 1977) There are other important technologies that are available to geographers as well, such as maps, aerial photography/photogrammetry/pictometry, SAR, LiDAR, SONAR, and GIS The next section discusses the technologies mentioned above along with the similarities and differences between them and the field of remote sensing

List of Sensors

  • Vision and Imaging Sensors
  • Temperature Sensors
  • Radiation Sensors
  • Proximity Sensors
  • Pressure Sensors
  • Position Sensors
  • Photoelectric Sensors
  • Particle Sensors

Remote sensing tools:

  • Aerial Photography
  • FLIR
  • Geodetic Survey
  • Hyperspectral Imaging
  • Long-Wave Infrared
  • Multispectral Imaging
  • Near Infrared Surveys
  • Oblique Aerial & Ground Visible Band & Thermographic Imaging

The advantages of remote sensing include the ability to collect information over large spatial areas; to characterize natural features or physical objects on the ground; to observe surface areas and objects on a systematic basis and monitor their changes over time; and the ability to integrate this data with other. Remote sensing uses a part or several parts of the electromagnetic spectrum It records the electromagnetic energy reflected or emitted by the earth's surface. The amount of radiation from an object (called radiance) is influenced by both the properties of the object and the radiation hitting the object (irradiance).