Assessing Impact of Climate variability on Food Security using Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS): Case Study from Mirababaya Woreda Gamo Zone Ethiopia
Food insecurity is a condition that put impact on population that usually experience food shortage. It must be analyzed in the context of climate variability, climate change and uncertainty in order to minimize its future impact (WFP, 2009). Climate variability has an impact on human health, livelihood assets, food production and distribution channels, as well as changing purchasing power and market flows. Its impacts can be categorized in to both short term, resulting from more frequent and more intense extreme weather events, and long term, caused by changing temperatures and precipitation patterns. People who are already vulnerable and food insecure are likely to be the first affected.
Drought in particular is a major problem and immediate cause of food shortages and famines. For instance, a major drought in 1984/85 led to decline of the GDP by 9.7 per cent, decline of agricultural production by 21 per cent and reduction of gross domestic savings by 59 per cent (World Bank, 2006). In 2002/03, 13.2 million Ethiopians required emergency food assistance due to a major drought (World Bank, 2006). Climate change is likely to increase rainfall variability and incidence of dry spells and droughts, potentially affecting larger areas and larger populations than at the present. On the other hand, according to UNFCCC (2015) population projections, Ethiopia’s population will reach 100 million by 2020, 120 million by 2030 and 145 million by 2050. These indicate that attaining food security is likely to remain, at least for the short term, a key challenge to Ethiopia.